Figure 1: CO2M Mission will be Operated by Eumetsat, Copernicus Space Component provides the support for the Acquisition of the data.
The Copernicus Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide Monitoring (CO2M) is a European Space Agency (ESA) mission that will be the first to measure how much carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere specifically through human activity. The mission is a part of the Copernicus Sentinel Expansion mission, which ESA is developing on behalf of the European Union (EU) and consists of three satellites: CO2M-A, CO2M-B and CO2M-C, the first of which is planned for launch in 2025.
CO2M will be equipped with three instruments, which will work together to enable accurate measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The Integrated CO2 and NO2 Imaging Spectrometer (CO2I) will provide CO2, CH4 and NO2 observation with a relatively high spatial resolution in support of estimating anthropogenic emissions, while the 3-band CLoud IMager (CLIM) will detect low and high clouds in the spatial sample of CO2I, allowing the removal of these data from the retrieval process. The Multi-Angular Multi-band Polarimeter (MAP) will copper the CO2 and CH4 retrieval by accurately estimating the effective light path effects of the aerosols.
CO2I is a push-broom nadir-scanning spectrometer that will be able to measure CO2 with a precision of 0.7 ppm and CH4 with a precision of 10 ppb at a spatial resolution of 4 km x 4 km and swath width of 250 km. For the measurement of CO2, it will measure top of atmosphere (TOA) radiance in the Near Infrared (NIR) range at 743-773 nm and in two Shortwave Infrared (SWIR) bands at 1590-1675 nm and 1990-2095 nm. CLIM is a pushbroom multi-purpose imager that will have a spatial resolution of less than 0.4 km x 0.4 km and a swath width of 465 km. It will image in three bands in the Visible (VIS) and SWIR range at 670 nm, 752 nm and 1370 nm to provide images of cloud cover with a Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) greater than 200. MAP will have a spatial resolution of 2 km x 2 km at nadir and a swath width of 300 km. It will measure TOA radiances in 6 narrow filter bands in the VIS and NIR ranges between 410 nm and 865nm.
The three satellites, CO2M-A, CO2M-B, and CO2M-C will all be in sun-synchronous orbits at an altitude of 735 km and an orbital inclination of 97.7°. The orbital period of these satellites will be 99.5 minutes with a 11-day repeat cycle.
Otto Hydraulic Bremen (OHB) systems are the main contractor for the satellite development and will lead an industrial consortium to build the satellites. The CO2I and MAP instruments will be supplied by Thales Alenia Space while the CLIM instruments, derived from the ProbaV instrument, will be provided by Optique et Instruments de Précision (OIP) sensors in Belgium.
Quantifying CO2 emissions
Air quality monitoring
Urban environment safety
The first satellite in the series, CO2M-A, is planned to be launched in December 2025 which will be followed by CO2M-B in March 2026 and CO2M-C later in 2026.
Figure 2: High-resolution simulation of total column carbon dioxide plumes from Berlin and nearby power plants on 2 July 2015. The data were generated by Empa, as part of the ESA-funded Smartcarb study. [Credits:https://www.empa.ch/]